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  Most popular articles (Since May 15, 2018)

 
 
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Benefits of gum arabic, for a solitary kidney under adverse conditions: A case study
Mehrab Dashtdar, Karima Kardi
July-September 2018, 1(2):88-96
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_22_18  
Gum Arabic (GA, called E-414 in the EU food industry), a natural biopolymer resin is a dried exudation obtained from the stems and branches of natural strains of Acacia Senegal (L) Willdenow. It consists mainly of high molecular weight polysaccharides and their calcium, potassium, and magnesium, which on hydrolysis yield arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid. Fermentable natural fiber of gum Arabic act as probiotics improves the absorption of minerals, especially calcium and helps to maintain a healthy balance of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Extraction, transformation, or reprocessing of nitrogenous wastes (ammonia, urea, and uric acid) by the GI tract is a potentially low-cost means of switching for missing renal function. Binding of nitrogen compounds to be inert orally by administration of gum Arabic is the safe solution either in normal renal function or renal failures. In this study, clinically, we observed a case of solitary kidney under adverse condition long-term treating with gum Arabic the vast potential of bioactive phytochemicals as a nontoxic, efficient with uric acid and bilirubin lowering agent and anti-inflammatory effects, considering the gum Arabic as a potential therapeutic supplement, beneficial in chronic renal failure, cardiovascular disease, pain management, and dental health. Despite the nonexistent background concerning the benefits of gum Arabic, for a solitary kidney under adverse conditions, our study has confirmed that long-term consumption of gum Arabic not only has no side effect but also protects multi-organs damage from drug adverse reactions and consequences of baseline disease, including renal, vascular, dental and inflammatory diseases.
  6,577 218 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hua Tuo's Wu Qin Xi (Five Animal Frolics) movements and the logic behind it
Saša Balaneskovic
October-December 2018, 1(3):127-134
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_32_18  
The key proposition of this hypothesis is logic behind the order of movements of Hua Tuo's qigong Wu Qin Xi (Five animal frolics). To date, there were many discussions about connection of the movements of Wu Qin Xi with existing TCM theories and why Hua Tuo made it in that particular way. Some experts are saying that there is no connection but if all stories of Hua Tuo's abilities and knowledge were half-truth, he wouldn't let even the order of movements of qigong that he created be just a random order. Hypothesis is exploring different views on Taiji movement direction, Wu Xing and connection between animals in Wu Qin Xi, Lo Shu square and Sun wheel and proposing possible solution to the question “Why Hua Tuo made such order of animals in Wu Qin Xi?” by analyzing and and cross referencing the common ground between theories and bridging the gap the we were left without any written explanation from the master itself. Further progress and confirmation of this hypothesis requires deeper research and cooperation between Qigong expert historians.
  4,225 343 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Traditional chinese medicine in Malaysia: A brief historical overview of the interactions between China and Malay Peninsula
Wen Tien Tan, Hon Foong Wong, Shih Chau Ng, Si Woei Goh, Jun Liu, Bao Ling Hoo, Chyong En Chai, Xun Lin
July-September 2018, 1(2):60-63
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_17_18  
Chinese Medicine was introduced to the Malay Peninsula during the colonial era circa 18th to 19th century. The British imported Chinese immigrants mainly for tin mining. The early Chinese settlers had brought with them the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to Malaya. As time goes by, TCM becomes one of the popular traditional medicines that are accepted by other ethnicities. TCM has thus contributed to the welfare of Malaysians. In 2016, a Traditional and Complementary Medicine (T and CM) Act was passed by the Malaysia Parliament. TCM is one of the T and CM practices that fall under the regulation. TCM services are now offered in Malaysia's public hospitals in addition to private practices. This article aims to provide a brief overview on the development of TCM in the precolonial and postindependent Malaysia.
  4,111 351 -
Traditional Indian medicine and traditional Chinese medicine: A comparative overview
Sheikh Faruque Elahee, Huijuan Mao, Xueyong Shen
July-September 2019, 2(3):105-113
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_29_19  
Traditional Indian medicine or Ayurveda (阿育吠陀) and Traditional Chinese Medicine remain the most ancient yet living traditions. These are the two great traditional medicines with rich philosophical, experiential, and experimental basis. Both the systems have been developed and enriched by thousands of years of practices, observations, and experiences. As India and China are neighbors, some exchange of medical ideas and practices might have occurred between the two nations since ancient times. Therefore, when the two traditional medicines are examined closely, many similarities become apparent in the theories and practices along with individual differences.
  3,357 280 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Homeopathic medicine versus traditional chinese medicine: An analytical overview
Sheikh Faruque Elahee, Huijuan Mao, Fatema Zohra, Sheikh Muhammad Bin Faruque, Xueyong Shen
January-March 2020, 3(1):1-9
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_7_20  
Conventional homeopathy and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are two popular alternative systems of medicine, which are practiced also in many countries outsidethe countries of origin. Homeopathy originated in Germany in the 19th century and spread throughout the world in spite of antagonism by theorthodox practitioners. It is a holistic medicine based on the principles of treatment where the remedy and the disease have similar symptoms,applies a single potentized medicine at a time, in minimum dose. TCM, also a holistic medicine originating in ancient China about 3000 years ago, has been developed and practiced through centuries till today as one of the most popular alternative medicines in the world. Both the systems ofmedicine have many differences in theories, principles and practices, but they have some important aspects in common. Both are holistic in approach,treating the whole patient, not the affected organs only; focusing on stimulating the intrinsic life principle to bring order, and on homeostasis and balance in the organism. In therapeutics, they may advantageously be applied as adjuvant to each other, producing synergistic effects.
  3,313 219 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Structure and distribution of the San Jiao and Cou Li – Recognized interstitium in human tissues
Lifang Qu
July-September 2018, 1(2):84-87
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_23_18  
Since the Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon (c. 200 bce), Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has held that the san jiao system is the largest anatomical structure in the human body, and that it consists of a network comprising the large cavities in the body trunk and the small interstitial spaces between the tissues and cells throughout the body. More than 2000 years later, and according to recent scientific reports in America, this network of structures has been recognized by modern medicine. The two theories, TCM's san jiao and its system of spaces(腠còu), and the recent scientific discovery of an interstitial network in the human body, are quite similar in structure, distribution and function.
  2,966 264 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
The Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine: First complete summary of ancient chinese medicine
Weikang Fu
April-June 2018, 1(1):18-20
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_6_18  
This paper introduces an outstanding medical book The Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine, and analyzes the theory about traditional Chinese medicine in this book.
  2,573 402 -
Cupping, the past and present application
Xun Lin, Hon Foong Wong, Shih Chau Ng
October-December 2018, 1(3):121-126
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_37_18  
Cupping is a therapy in which a cup is applied to the skin surface to cause local congestion through negative pressure. It has a long history in many places such as China, Greece, Egypt, and the Middle East. The ancient Chinese used animal horns as their cupping instrument, whereas in modern days there are a wide variety of choices ranging from bamboo cup to glass cup. Cupping is simple, inexpensive and yet has wide indications. Research has shown that it can promote blood circulation, stimulate nerve and muscle functions. In terms of application methods, fire cupping, liquid cupping and vaccum cupping were discussed. The five application techniques (flashing, retaining, moving, needle retention and bleeding) and precautions of cupping are also discussed in detail. Lastly, pathological reactions observed during the cupping process can be used to support Chinese Medicine diagnosis.
  2,639 233 -
Adoption of traditional chinese medicine in a central mediterranean island community
Charles Savona-Ventura
July-September 2018, 1(2):51-55
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_18_18  
The Maltese Islands in the central Mediterranean was one of the earliest European countries to initiate political relationships with the People's Republic of China. The political interaction translated eventually to a better appreciation of the cultural diversity of the respective countries. This appreciation led to an early adoption of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) services and their incorporation within the mainline western-based contemporary medicine generally practiced on the Islands. TCM clinical services were formally introduced in the public government-managed hospital in 1994 after a bilateral agreement was signed between the health ministries of the two respective countries. This service has now extended into the private health sector. The adoption of TCM clinical services, in the light of a greater acceptance of TCM by the patients, necessitated specific legislation to regulate the practice of TCM within the legal framework of the Maltese Healthcare Professions Act. In more recent years, since 2015, the University of Malta in collaboration with Shanghai University of TCM, have provided a postgraduate master program in TCM aimed at graduates holding a primary degree in a western-oriented health-care science.
  2,582 262 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The silk road and sources of chinese medicine expansion: Part 1 – Materia Medica
Sean Bradley
April-June 2018, 1(1):29-31
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_9_18  
The Silk Road stretched over land and across seas connecting Europe, Africa, and Asia. The trade of medicine along these routes has had profound impacts on the populations and traditions they have come into contact with. Chinese Medicine is no exception as it has taken numerous nonnative products and incorporated them into the unique philosophical construct of systematic correspondences that govern its practice. By looking at the four categories of primary source materials and studying the history of medical exchange along the Silk Road, we can determine how and where this information is used in Chinese Medicine. The Materia Medica (ben cao 本草) texts are the first source of information for this study that will explore multiple sources to better understand the development of Chinese Medicine in relation to the rest of the world.
  2,344 397 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Brief history of Chinese medicine in France
Marc Mezard
October-December 2018, 1(3):103-107
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_35_18  
In the 17th century, Chinese medicine appeared in France; since then, it never stopped evolving and is applied by French practitioners. Today, acupuncture is widely used in clinic treatment in France.
  2,308 289 -
Series of Interpretation on Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic: Two Correspondence between Human and the Heaven: Views from Huang Di Nei Jing (《黄帝内经》 Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic)
Qingqi Wang
April-June 2018, 1(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_5_18  
This paper introduces the relations between human and the nature in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is a science dedicated to studies on laws of human life activities.
  2,235 266 -
Traditional chinese medicine in Malaysia: A brief historical overview of laws and regulations
Hon Foong Wong, Shih Chau Ng, Wen Tien Tan, Huiying Wang, Xun Lin, Si Woei Goh, Bao Ling Hoo, Chyong En Chai, Jun Liu
October-December 2019, 2(4):162-165
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_40_19  
Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been a part of the Malaya and the Malaysia people's method of maintaining health and well-being for many centuries, it was never been enrolled in the public health-care system. However, the rising cost of Western drugs and the increasing number of people frequenting TCM has driven the government to search for cheaper options and to look into its safe practice. In 1992, the government mandated all TCM herbal products to be registered with the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau. All TCM products sold in Malaysia are now Good Manufacturing Practice certified. The government has also established a Traditional and Complementary Medicine Division within the Ministry of Health. Between 2008 and 2014, a traditional and complementary medicine unit was set up in major hospitals in all states. TCM is one of the main services offered by the unit. In 2016, the government enacted the Traditional and Complementary Medicine Act to regulate the TCM practice. Subsequently, a 10-year blueprint has been drawn to support the development of all traditional and complementary medicines in Malaysia. This article aims to provide a brief overview on the regulatory development of TCM in Malaysia.
  2,202 191 -
Modernization of medical traditions: Indian and Chinese approaches to health and well-being
Ved Baruah
July-September 2018, 1(2):56-59
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_19_18  
The provisioning of health and well-being for every human being on the planet calls for a rethink of conventional medical practices. In both the developed as well as developing world contexts, there is a growing need to rejuvenate alternative medical systems, but they have to be modernized to have cross-cultural appeal and acceptance. This paper explores the clash between Western medicine and Indian traditional medicine in 19th century colonial India which offers a historical precedent that could hold key lessons to the spread of traditional medicine across the world. The paper argues that the British government used biomedicine as a political tool to dominate Indians and resistance from Indian practitioners of traditional systems of medicines (TSMs) was systematically put down through policy measures. However, it was the clash between the medical modalities that transformed Indian TSMs forever as systems such as Ayurveda (the science of life) and Yoga took on the challenge and modernized and continue to have global appeal. The paper compares Indian and Chinese medical systems and argues that similarities in theory and practice in two different historical contexts, 19th century India and modern-day China, enable us to understand the relevance of modernization practices in our contemporary world.
  2,068 263 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Maqianzi (马钱子Strychnos), A poisonous medicinal native to the Western Regions
Yiwen Yang, Baican Yang
January-March 2019, 2(1):44-47
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_11_19  
Maqianzi (马钱子Strychnos) is also called “Fanmubie (番木鳖),” “Kushi (苦实)” and “QianJi drug (牵机药).” The alias “Fanmubie” shows its origin and its characteristics. The name of “Kushi” implies its taste and flavor. “Qianji Drug vividly shows the clinical manifestations of the poisoning of Maqianzi. The name of “Maqianzi” is the comprehensive display of its characteristic, toxicity, etc., Maqianzi is famous for its poison, which is often used in the treatment of various intractable diseases. It shows the poison Culture in the Western Regions, meanwhile it also displays the unique charm of Traditional herbs in transforming poison into treasure.
  2,217 111 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
The bronze acupuncture model produced by emperor qianlong's order in 1744 A.D.
Hong Qin
April-June 2018, 1(1):21-24
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_12_18  
The bronze acupuncture model was produced by Emperor Qianlong's order in 1744 A.D. It has been 274 years since then, and this model has always been well kept and handed down with a full record. It is of great traditional medical and cultural value, regarded as the treasure of Shanghai Museum of Traditional Chinese Medicine due to its rareness and intactness both at home and abroad.
  2,123 179 -
Traditional chinese medicine in Canada: An indigenous perspective
Honoré France, Carmen Rodriguez
January-March 2019, 2(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_2_19  
This paper summarizes the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Canada by exploring why so many indigenous people are drawn to it. We present a brief history of TCM in Canada, including its acceptance by 5 of the 10 provinces in Canada as one of the medical approaches, accepted and regulated by the government. Chinese philosophy embedded in TCM is compared to indigenous philosophy, and there is a description of some of the plants and animals used as remedies in indigenous folk medicine. In addition, there is a short description of how TCM psychology parallels some practices in indigenous psychology.
  1,973 236 -
Traditional chinese medicine in Malaysia: A brief historical overview of the institutions
Shih Chau Ng, Hon Foong Wong, Wen Tien Tan, Jun Liu, Huiying Wang, Xun Lin, Si Woei Goh, Bao Ling Hoo, Chyong En Chai
January-March 2019, 2(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_4_19  
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in British Malaya developed concurrently with the influx of Chinese immigrants. To cater for this growing community, Chinese medical halls which sell Chinese herbs were established in major townships. Consultation and various TCM treatments were also offered by contract TCM practitioners in some of these medical halls. As the needs for TCM services continued to grow, dedicated TCM institutions were set up subsequently. The establishment of these institutions marked the beginning of professional TCM services in the history of Malaysia.
  1,970 199 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The silk road and sources of Chinese medicine expansion: Part 2 – Formularies
Sean Bradley
July-September 2018, 1(2):68-70
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_20_18  
Medicines have been traded along the Silk Road from antiquity until modern times. These products and their associated knowledge have been transferred over the land and sea between Asia, Europe, and Africa. Numerous texts that contain formulas and treatments passed along the Silk Road. Collections of these formulas and treatment methods called formularies contain unique information that informs this transfer of medicine. The texts and information flowed in both directions along these routes and while Chinese medicine influenced foreign medical practices both in history, and today, the incorporation of non-Chinese medicine and information also continues to influence Chinese medicine.
  1,722 382 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Constitutional/Conditional acupuncture
Peter Eckman
April-June 2018, 1(1):46-48
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_10_18  
A new style of acupuncture, named constitutional/conditional acupuncture (CCA), based on traditional Asian medical practices, was revealed in Kunming in 2017. This method is primarily based on pulse diagnosis, as developed in China, Korea, and India. The basic methods of CCA are briefly described, and a few case results from the 3-day Kunming workshop are presented to reveal the efficacy of CCA.
  1,848 251 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Traditional vietnamese medicine between chinese heritage and national tradition
Anita Bui
January-March 2019, 2(1):21-25
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_13_19  
The influence of Chinese medical theory and practice on traditional Viet Nam medicine in the past is undeniable. We can discuss about a Chinese heritage. This Chinese School of Traditional Medicine has trained a large number of Vietnamese doctors. There is, however, throughout the history of medicine in Viet Nam and along with the native genius, the birth of a Vietnamese specificity. What is the part of the heritage in this tradition, what is its own distinctiveness? Hence the title of this article.
  1,938 158 -
CASE REPORT
Chinese guqin music and calligraphy for treating symptoms of primary insomnia
Miranda M Y Fung, Henry S R Kao, Stewart P W Lam, Tin Tin Kao
January-March 2019, 2(1):48-52
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_15_19  
Purpose: To investigate the intervention effects of using traditional Chinese Guqin music and Chinese Calligraphy handwriting (CCH) for patients with Primary Insomnia. Methods: A total of ninety patients were assigned to control group, Guqin group, and calligraphy group for 8 weeks. For 5 days a week, patients' heart rate variability (HRV) and frontal midline (FZ) electroencephalographic signals were recorded in a clinic during interventional period while either listening to Guqin music or writing calligraphy. Patients in the control group remained in rest condition. Results: For the Guqin group, the higher low-frequency-range HRV of coherence was found with marginal significance (P = 0.055), and heart rate was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) during the 4th week in listening to Guqin music compared to the prerest period. For listening to Guqin music or calligraphy intervention, FZ δ, FZ θ, and FZ α waves in the 8th week compared to the 0th week (Pre Intervention) showed a significantly enhanced effect (P < 0.05). Between the three groups, for heart rate and FZ δ and FZ θ waves, calligraphy group showed significantly increased heart rate than the Guqin group (P < 0.001)and the control group (P = 0.004); increased FZ δ wave than the Guqin group (P < 0.001) and the control group (P < 0.001); and increased FZ θ wave than the Guqin group (P = 0.024) and the control group (P = 0.008) respectively. Conclusion: Positive intervention effects on HRV coherence of Guqin music; FZ δ, FZ θ, and FZ α waves of Guqin music and calligraphy proved that Guqin music together with calligraphy training helping to promote physical and mental health, thereby it contributes to the clinical application of TCM Psychology for patients with insomnia syndrome.
  1,871 219 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Searching for chinese medicinal plants in greek classical medicine: A first approach
Alain Touwaide, Emanuela Appetiti
April-June 2018, 1(1):40-45
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_7_18  
This article examines the presence and uses of plants attested in the Chinese medical tradition in the materia medica literature of classical antiquity. It is based on the consultation of the major ancient compilations on materia medica of Chinese medicine and classical antiquity, specifically Bencao Gangmu by Li Shizhen (16th cent.) and De materia medica by Dioscorides (1st cent. A.D.). The article is divided in three major parts: the identification of plants used in the Chinese medical tradition in the medicine of the Mediterranean World in Antiquity; the analysis of the knowledge of these plants and their origin in classical antiquity; a comparison of the uses of these plants in the Bencao Gangmu and De materia medica. It traces the presence of plants of the Chinese medical tradition in Classical antiquity. Although their exact origin was not known, they were reputed at that time to be native to either India or the Black Sea, two areas that correspond to the ending points of the Silk Road. As for their uses in both traditions, they correspond for some plants, whereas they do not for others because either the uses attested in the Chinese tradition were not preserved on the Mediterranean or different uses appeared in the Mediterranean tradition. These differentiated uses hint at both continuities and ruptures, with the latter resulting from the long journey of the plants from the Chinese World to the Mediterranean and, at the same time, attempts aimed to diversify and optimize the applications of non-native medicinal substances.
  1,451 609 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Revisiting the Medical Work of George Soulié De Morant
Jean Claude Dubois
April-June 2019, 2(2):53-56
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_14_19  
It is now time to revisit the medical work of George Soulié de Morant (1878–1955). Over the past 64 years, studies and research on acupuncture-moxibustion have undergone exceptional growth in China, and Western sinology has made remarkable progress. A careful rereading will bring a new light to this decisive work.
  1,825 215 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A glimpse into Lu Xun and Chinese medicine
Jin Ye
July-September 2018, 1(2):71-73
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_26_18  
The criticism against Chinese medicine by Lu Xun at the early stage is often taken as a sharp weapon to attack Chinese medicine. However, through a horizontal and sequential analysis of the relevant material, it can be seen that Lu has experienced a process of learning, practicing, and objectively assessing Chinese medicine, which is closely related to the social background of the period, personal experience, and changes of thoughts.
  1,778 198 -