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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Benefits of gum arabic, for a solitary kidney under adverse conditions: A case study
Mehrab Dashtdar, Karima Kardi
July-September 2018, 1(2):88-96
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_22_18  
Gum Arabic (GA, called E-414 in the EU food industry), a natural biopolymer resin is a dried exudation obtained from the stems and branches of natural strains of Acacia Senegal (L) Willdenow. It consists mainly of high molecular weight polysaccharides and their calcium, potassium, and magnesium, which on hydrolysis yield arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid. Fermentable natural fiber of gum Arabic act as probiotics improves the absorption of minerals, especially calcium and helps to maintain a healthy balance of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Extraction, transformation, or reprocessing of nitrogenous wastes (ammonia, urea, and uric acid) by the GI tract is a potentially low-cost means of switching for missing renal function. Binding of nitrogen compounds to be inert orally by administration of gum Arabic is the safe solution either in normal renal function or renal failures. In this study, clinically, we observed a case of solitary kidney under adverse condition long-term treating with gum Arabic the vast potential of bioactive phytochemicals as a nontoxic, efficient with uric acid and bilirubin lowering agent and anti-inflammatory effects, considering the gum Arabic as a potential therapeutic supplement, beneficial in chronic renal failure, cardiovascular disease, pain management, and dental health. Despite the nonexistent background concerning the benefits of gum Arabic, for a solitary kidney under adverse conditions, our study has confirmed that long-term consumption of gum Arabic not only has no side effect but also protects multi-organs damage from drug adverse reactions and consequences of baseline disease, including renal, vascular, dental and inflammatory diseases.
  17,177 399 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hua Tuo's Wu Qin Xi (Five Animal Frolics) movements and the logic behind it
Saša Balaneskovic
October-December 2018, 1(3):127-134
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_32_18  
The key proposition of this hypothesis is logic behind the order of movements of Hua Tuo's qigong Wu Qin Xi (Five animal frolics). To date, there were many discussions about connection of the movements of Wu Qin Xi with existing TCM theories and why Hua Tuo made it in that particular way. Some experts are saying that there is no connection but if all stories of Hua Tuo's abilities and knowledge were half-truth, he wouldn't let even the order of movements of qigong that he created be just a random order. Hypothesis is exploring different views on Taiji movement direction, Wu Xing and connection between animals in Wu Qin Xi, Lo Shu square and Sun wheel and proposing possible solution to the question “Why Hua Tuo made such order of animals in Wu Qin Xi?” by analyzing and and cross referencing the common ground between theories and bridging the gap the we were left without any written explanation from the master itself. Further progress and confirmation of this hypothesis requires deeper research and cooperation between Qigong expert historians.
  9,419 581 1
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Homeopathic medicine versus traditional chinese medicine: An analytical overview
Sheikh Faruque Elahee, Huijuan Mao, Fatema Zohra, Sheikh Muhammad Bin Faruque, Xueyong Shen
January-March 2020, 3(1):1-9
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_7_20  
Conventional homeopathy and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are two popular alternative systems of medicine, which are practiced also in many countries outsidethe countries of origin. Homeopathy originated in Germany in the 19th century and spread throughout the world in spite of antagonism by theorthodox practitioners. It is a holistic medicine based on the principles of treatment where the remedy and the disease have similar symptoms,applies a single potentized medicine at a time, in minimum dose. TCM, also a holistic medicine originating in ancient China about 3000 years ago, has been developed and practiced through centuries till today as one of the most popular alternative medicines in the world. Both the systems ofmedicine have many differences in theories, principles and practices, but they have some important aspects in common. Both are holistic in approach,treating the whole patient, not the affected organs only; focusing on stimulating the intrinsic life principle to bring order, and on homeostasis and balance in the organism. In therapeutics, they may advantageously be applied as adjuvant to each other, producing synergistic effects.
  9,074 430 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Traditional chinese medicine in Malaysia: A brief historical overview of the interactions between China and Malay Peninsula
Wen Tien Tan, Hon Foong Wong, Shih Chau Ng, Si Woei Goh, Jun Liu, Bao Ling Hoo, Chyong En Chai, Xun Lin
July-September 2018, 1(2):60-63
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_17_18  
Chinese Medicine was introduced to the Malay Peninsula during the colonial era circa 18th to 19th century. The British imported Chinese immigrants mainly for tin mining. The early Chinese settlers had brought with them the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to Malaya. As time goes by, TCM becomes one of the popular traditional medicines that are accepted by other ethnicities. TCM has thus contributed to the welfare of Malaysians. In 2016, a Traditional and Complementary Medicine (T and CM) Act was passed by the Malaysia Parliament. TCM is one of the T and CM practices that fall under the regulation. TCM services are now offered in Malaysia's public hospitals in addition to private practices. This article aims to provide a brief overview on the development of TCM in the precolonial and postindependent Malaysia.
  7,910 598 -
Traditional Indian medicine and traditional Chinese medicine: A comparative overview
Sheikh Faruque Elahee, Huijuan Mao, Xueyong Shen
July-September 2019, 2(3):105-113
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_29_19  
Traditional Indian medicine or Ayurveda (阿育吠陀) and Traditional Chinese Medicine remain the most ancient yet living traditions. These are the two great traditional medicines with rich philosophical, experiential, and experimental basis. Both the systems have been developed and enriched by thousands of years of practices, observations, and experiences. As India and China are neighbors, some exchange of medical ideas and practices might have occurred between the two nations since ancient times. Therefore, when the two traditional medicines are examined closely, many similarities become apparent in the theories and practices along with individual differences.
  7,781 521 1
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Structure and distribution of the San Jiao and Cou Li – Recognized interstitium in human tissues
Lifang Qu
July-September 2018, 1(2):84-87
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_23_18  
Since the Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon (c. 200 bce), Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has held that the san jiao system is the largest anatomical structure in the human body, and that it consists of a network comprising the large cavities in the body trunk and the small interstitial spaces between the tissues and cells throughout the body. More than 2000 years later, and according to recent scientific reports in America, this network of structures has been recognized by modern medicine. The two theories, TCM's san jiao and its system of spaces(腠còu), and the recent scientific discovery of an interstitial network in the human body, are quite similar in structure, distribution and function.
  7,738 490 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Traditional chinese medicine in Malaysia: A brief historical overview of laws and regulations
Hon Foong Wong, Shih Chau Ng, Wen Tien Tan, Huiying Wang, Xun Lin, Si Woei Goh, Bao Ling Hoo, Chyong En Chai, Jun Liu
October-December 2019, 2(4):162-165
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_40_19  
Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been a part of the Malaya and the Malaysia people's method of maintaining health and well-being for many centuries, it was never been enrolled in the public health-care system. However, the rising cost of Western drugs and the increasing number of people frequenting TCM has driven the government to search for cheaper options and to look into its safe practice. In 1992, the government mandated all TCM herbal products to be registered with the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau. All TCM products sold in Malaysia are now Good Manufacturing Practice certified. The government has also established a Traditional and Complementary Medicine Division within the Ministry of Health. Between 2008 and 2014, a traditional and complementary medicine unit was set up in major hospitals in all states. TCM is one of the main services offered by the unit. In 2016, the government enacted the Traditional and Complementary Medicine Act to regulate the TCM practice. Subsequently, a 10-year blueprint has been drawn to support the development of all traditional and complementary medicines in Malaysia. This article aims to provide a brief overview on the regulatory development of TCM in Malaysia.
  7,312 507 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Maqianzi (马钱子Strychnos), A poisonous medicinal native to the Western Regions
Yiwen Yang, Baican Yang
January-March 2019, 2(1):44-47
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_11_19  
Maqianzi (马钱子Strychnos) is also called “Fanmubie (番木鳖),” “Kushi (苦实)” and “QianJi drug (牵机药).” The alias “Fanmubie” shows its origin and its characteristics. The name of “Kushi” implies its taste and flavor. “Qianji Drug vividly shows the clinical manifestations of the poisoning of Maqianzi. The name of “Maqianzi” is the comprehensive display of its characteristic, toxicity, etc., Maqianzi is famous for its poison, which is often used in the treatment of various intractable diseases. It shows the poison Culture in the Western Regions, meanwhile it also displays the unique charm of Traditional herbs in transforming poison into treasure.
  6,184 220 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
The Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine: First complete summary of ancient chinese medicine
Weikang Fu
April-June 2018, 1(1):18-20
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_6_18  
This paper introduces an outstanding medical book The Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine, and analyzes the theory about traditional Chinese medicine in this book.
  5,662 586 -
CASE REPORT
Chinese guqin music and calligraphy for treating symptoms of primary insomnia
Miranda M Y Fung, Henry S R Kao, Stewart P W Lam, Tin Tin Kao
January-March 2019, 2(1):48-52
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_15_19  
Purpose: To investigate the intervention effects of using traditional Chinese Guqin music and Chinese Calligraphy handwriting (CCH) for patients with Primary Insomnia. Methods: A total of ninety patients were assigned to control group, Guqin group, and calligraphy group for 8 weeks. For 5 days a week, patients' heart rate variability (HRV) and frontal midline (FZ) electroencephalographic signals were recorded in a clinic during interventional period while either listening to Guqin music or writing calligraphy. Patients in the control group remained in rest condition. Results: For the Guqin group, the higher low-frequency-range HRV of coherence was found with marginal significance (P = 0.055), and heart rate was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) during the 4th week in listening to Guqin music compared to the prerest period. For listening to Guqin music or calligraphy intervention, FZ δ, FZ θ, and FZ α waves in the 8th week compared to the 0th week (Pre Intervention) showed a significantly enhanced effect (P < 0.05). Between the three groups, for heart rate and FZ δ and FZ θ waves, calligraphy group showed significantly increased heart rate than the Guqin group (P < 0.001)and the control group (P = 0.004); increased FZ δ wave than the Guqin group (P < 0.001) and the control group (P < 0.001); and increased FZ θ wave than the Guqin group (P = 0.024) and the control group (P = 0.008) respectively. Conclusion: Positive intervention effects on HRV coherence of Guqin music; FZ δ, FZ θ, and FZ α waves of Guqin music and calligraphy proved that Guqin music together with calligraphy training helping to promote physical and mental health, thereby it contributes to the clinical application of TCM Psychology for patients with insomnia syndrome.
  5,838 401 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Cupping, the past and present application
Xun Lin, Hon Foong Wong, Shih Chau Ng
October-December 2018, 1(3):121-126
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_37_18  
Cupping is a therapy in which a cup is applied to the skin surface to cause local congestion through negative pressure. It has a long history in many places such as China, Greece, Egypt, and the Middle East. The ancient Chinese used animal horns as their cupping instrument, whereas in modern days there are a wide variety of choices ranging from bamboo cup to glass cup. Cupping is simple, inexpensive and yet has wide indications. Research has shown that it can promote blood circulation, stimulate nerve and muscle functions. In terms of application methods, fire cupping, liquid cupping and vaccum cupping were discussed. The five application techniques (flashing, retaining, moving, needle retention and bleeding) and precautions of cupping are also discussed in detail. Lastly, pathological reactions observed during the cupping process can be used to support Chinese Medicine diagnosis.
  5,719 389 -
Traditional chinese medicine in Canada: An indigenous perspective
Honoré France, Carmen Rodriguez
January-March 2019, 2(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_2_19  
This paper summarizes the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Canada by exploring why so many indigenous people are drawn to it. We present a brief history of TCM in Canada, including its acceptance by 5 of the 10 provinces in Canada as one of the medical approaches, accepted and regulated by the government. Chinese philosophy embedded in TCM is compared to indigenous philosophy, and there is a description of some of the plants and animals used as remedies in indigenous folk medicine. In addition, there is a short description of how TCM psychology parallels some practices in indigenous psychology.
  5,426 493 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The silk road and sources of chinese medicine expansion: Part 1 – Materia Medica
Sean Bradley
April-June 2018, 1(1):29-31
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_9_18  
The Silk Road stretched over land and across seas connecting Europe, Africa, and Asia. The trade of medicine along these routes has had profound impacts on the populations and traditions they have come into contact with. Chinese Medicine is no exception as it has taken numerous nonnative products and incorporated them into the unique philosophical construct of systematic correspondences that govern its practice. By looking at the four categories of primary source materials and studying the history of medical exchange along the Silk Road, we can determine how and where this information is used in Chinese Medicine. The Materia Medica (ben cao 本草) texts are the first source of information for this study that will explore multiple sources to better understand the development of Chinese Medicine in relation to the rest of the world.
  5,050 569 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Traditional chinese medicine in Malaysia: A brief historical overview of the institutions
Shih Chau Ng, Hon Foong Wong, Wen Tien Tan, Jun Liu, Huiying Wang, Xun Lin, Si Woei Goh, Bao Ling Hoo, Chyong En Chai
January-March 2019, 2(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_4_19  
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in British Malaya developed concurrently with the influx of Chinese immigrants. To cater for this growing community, Chinese medical halls which sell Chinese herbs were established in major townships. Consultation and various TCM treatments were also offered by contract TCM practitioners in some of these medical halls. As the needs for TCM services continued to grow, dedicated TCM institutions were set up subsequently. The establishment of these institutions marked the beginning of professional TCM services in the history of Malaysia.
  4,888 323 1
Brief history of Chinese medicine in France
Marc Mezard
October-December 2018, 1(3):103-107
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_35_18  
In the 17th century, Chinese medicine appeared in France; since then, it never stopped evolving and is applied by French practitioners. Today, acupuncture is widely used in clinic treatment in France.
  4,707 461 1
The introduction and localisation of traditional Chinese medicine in Malaysia
Shin- Wei Lee, Hai- Li
January-March 2021, 4(1):37-45
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_2_21  
This thesis discusses how traditional Chinese medicine was introduced to Malaysia. History records show that traditional Chinese medicine was first introduced to Malaysia in the year 1405 while 1796 saw the establishment of Malaysia's first Chinese medicine shop. With the popularization of Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine education and organizations were established. Traditional Chinese Medicine has gradually been recognized by the Malaysian government due to the efforts of the practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine. In 2004, the Traditional and Complementary Medicine Department was established at the prestigious National Cancer Institute to improve quality of life as well as provide opportunities for cure to cancer patients.
  4,788 185 -
Traditional Chinese Medicine in Malaysia: A Brief Historical Overview of the Associations
Hon Foong Wong, Shih Chau Ng, Wen Tien Tan, Huiying Wang, Xun Lin, Si Woei Goh, Bao Ling Hoo, Chyong En Chai, Jun Liu
April-June 2019, 2(2):66-68
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_20_19  
The increasing number of TCM practitioners and herbal suppliers, both of which accelerated by the formation of various TCM institutions, substantiated the creation of regional traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) associations in post-World War II Malaya. In response to the restrictions and levies imposed by the British colonial government, these regional associations united and formed a national organisation now known as the Federation of Chinese Physicians and Medicine Dealers Association of Malaya (FCPMDAM). The current designated TCM practitioner body, the Malaysian Chinese Medical Association (MCMA) were also originally established to nurture local talents in the face of import restrictions. Owing to difference with MCMA, a separate association named the Federation of Chinese Physicians and Acupuncturists Associations of Malaysia (FCPAAM) was setup in 2003 to absorb self-studied and patrimonial-educated TCM practitioners.
  4,698 263 -
CASE REPORTS
Treatment of Obesity with Western Medicine and Traditional Medicine: Based on PubMed and Science Direct Databases
Gabriella Korio
April-June 2019, 2(2):99-104
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_21_19  
The objective of this review was to collect the current published research on obesity and gain insight into the association of treatment based on a global aspect. The first section of the review will cover the treatment of obesity based on a Western medicine lens. The second section of the review will cover the treatment through a traditional approach based from different regions of the world (not including China). The third section of the review will cover treatment through a traditional Chinese medicine approach. The most commonly used electronic databases were used to search for articles related to obesity. The articles gathered consist of a broad spectrum from various parts of the world. Terms used in the search bar consisted of “obesity”, “BMI”, “acupuncture”, “traditional Chinese medicine”, etc. The majority of findings were collected from treatment based on both a western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine approach. The published literature collected is predominantly sourced from the online journal databases PubMed and Science Direct. Obesity is an ever-growing issue throughout society today. Different methods have shown effective results in treating this disease. It is crucial to continue exploring different treatment methods in hopes to solve this major public health issue.
  4,621 299 1
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Ren (仁 ), the benevolent thought of traditional Chinese medicine
Anwen Zheng
July-September 2019, 2(3):137-140
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_27_19  
This article offers a brief introduction to the evolution of Ren(仁), which is not only the core of Confucian ethics but also the top moral principle observed by traditional Chinese medicine doctors, holding that feasible solutions to cultural conflicts could be worked out under the guidance of Ren.
  4,557 313 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Adoption of traditional chinese medicine in a central mediterranean island community
Charles Savona-Ventura
July-September 2018, 1(2):51-55
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_18_18  
The Maltese Islands in the central Mediterranean was one of the earliest European countries to initiate political relationships with the People's Republic of China. The political interaction translated eventually to a better appreciation of the cultural diversity of the respective countries. This appreciation led to an early adoption of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) services and their incorporation within the mainline western-based contemporary medicine generally practiced on the Islands. TCM clinical services were formally introduced in the public government-managed hospital in 1994 after a bilateral agreement was signed between the health ministries of the two respective countries. This service has now extended into the private health sector. The adoption of TCM clinical services, in the light of a greater acceptance of TCM by the patients, necessitated specific legislation to regulate the practice of TCM within the legal framework of the Maltese Healthcare Professions Act. In more recent years, since 2015, the University of Malta in collaboration with Shanghai University of TCM, have provided a postgraduate master program in TCM aimed at graduates holding a primary degree in a western-oriented health-care science.
  4,294 348 -
The bronze acupuncture model produced by emperor qianlong's order in 1744 A.D.
Hong Qin
April-June 2018, 1(1):21-24
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_12_18  
The bronze acupuncture model was produced by Emperor Qianlong's order in 1744 A.D. It has been 274 years since then, and this model has always been well kept and handed down with a full record. It is of great traditional medical and cultural value, regarded as the treasure of Shanghai Museum of Traditional Chinese Medicine due to its rareness and intactness both at home and abroad.
  4,302 292 -
CASE REPORT
Acupuncture versus Western medicine drugs (antidepressant) to treat depression
Anggaraeni Krta, Zhihai Hu, Yi Wang, Wen Wang, Rumeng Wang, Aijia Zhang
July-September 2019, 2(3):148-154
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_34_19  
The aim of the study is to assess the beneficial effects of acupuncture compared with Western medicine in treating patientswith depression. Depression is a serious psychiatric illness that involves symptoms such as depressed or sad mood, loss ofinterest or pleasure in activities, changes in weight, difficult sleep or oversleeping, energy loss, feelings of worthlessness, psychomotorchanges, and thoughts of death or suicide. Acupuncture and Western medicine have been widely used to treat the patient with depression. The following electronic databases were searched: The Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials (Central),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO, and PUBMED. The summary of this report was evaluated by using the Preferred Reporting Itemsfor Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Checklist. Sixty-four journals on acupuncture, Western medicine drugs (antidepressant),and containing both in treating depression were identified and included in this review. In term of Western medicine, antidepressant may helpthe ego function in short term, and for long-term using, it may cause the patient to become addictive toward the drug. Acupuncture is relativelysafe to use and proven significantly effective to treat the depression and less side effect for long term used by the patient. Currentevidence from this summary literature review shows that acupuncture and Western medicine (antidepressant) drugs can treat depression. However, acupuncture therapies almost give none of side effect compared to antidepressant, and every patient with depression can try acupuncture notexcluding the pregnant woman.
  4,312 267 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The internationalization of traditional chinese medicine into the Western World
ND Isa-Allean Blacksher
April-June 2018, 1(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_11_18  
This paper introduces the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine into the western world. Internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) into the Western world is not a simple or easy task. Its exposure and exportation into the rest of the world should be a task taken on with a special focus and determination on staying strong along the way. Keeping the truth, strength, and integrity in TCM medicine as it is exported is the highest priority and the best way to promote it. Doing this will give it a solid foundation in its new land and for its new patients. Let's study and analyze what really is required to help TCM avoid all problems and hardships of this exportation process as TCM goes west.
  4,231 343 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Traditional vietnamese medicine between chinese heritage and national tradition
Anita Bui
January-March 2019, 2(1):21-25
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_13_19  
The influence of Chinese medical theory and practice on traditional Viet Nam medicine in the past is undeniable. We can discuss about a Chinese heritage. This Chinese School of Traditional Medicine has trained a large number of Vietnamese doctors. There is, however, throughout the history of medicine in Viet Nam and along with the native genius, the birth of a Vietnamese specificity. What is the part of the heritage in this tradition, what is its own distinctiveness? Hence the title of this article.
  4,140 295 -
MATERIA MEDICA
Haritaki (诃子 ), Holy Medicine of Buddhism
Miaoqing Sha, Baican Yang
July-September 2019, 2(3):141-144
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_26_19  
Haritaki (诃子, Terminalia chebula Retz.) is also called “Big golden fruit,” “Wind-floating fruit,” and “Arura.” The alias “Big golden fruit” shows its appearance characteristics, the name of “Wind-floating fruit” implies its harsh living environment and tenacious vitality, and another name of “Arura,” which comes from Tibetan, emphasizes the medicinal value of Haritaki as valuable as rhinoceros horn. The Chinese name of “He Zi (诃子)” expresses the main purpose of Buddhism to universalize all living beings and save the spirit. The Haritaki tree is regarded as the holy tree of Buddhism in the folk. It is also respected as a holy medicine of Buddhism. Since it was introduced into China from India, it has been widely used as a health-preserving medicine. Haritaki, which is from Indian Buddhist culture, not only unravels the mysterious Buddhist culture but also excavates the connection and development of Indian Buddhist culture and traditional Chinese medicine.
  4,186 235 -