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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2020
Volume 3 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 115-188

Online since Tuesday, September 22, 2020

Accessed 2,795 times.

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OPINIONS  

Thoughts on coronavirus disease 2019 based on JingFang medicine (classical chinese formula) solutions for COVID-19 Highly accessed article p. 115
Huang Huang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_26_20  
This article aims to provide some thoughts on the prevention and treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) from the perspective of JingFang Medicine (Classical Chinese Formula). It is believed that the vague theoretical understanding of COVID-19 in Traditional Chinese Medicine does not hinder the precise treatment of the disease by following the rule of “With this Zheng, prescribe this Fang.” According to the principle of “Fang-Zheng Correlation” and the knowledge gained from the thousands of years of experience in treating febrile diseases, Xiao Chai Hu Decoction (小柴胡汤) and its modifications are recommended with the emphasis on individualized treatment. As another form of practicing “Fang-Zheng Correlation,” generalized group treatment should also be paid attention to. Giving considerations to the historical medical data, Jing Fang Bai Du Powder (荆防败毒散) and Shi Shen Decoction (十神汤) are recommended for group prevention treatment. Assisting the Zheng (Upright) Qi and using tonic formulas are two entirely different concepts. According to the principle of “Fang-Zheng Correlation,” tonics abuse should be avoided in the prevention of COVID-19, and the using of Huang Qi (黄芪 Radix Astragali seu Hedysari) should also be very carefully done.
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Epidemic diseases and Chinese medicine: Example of SARS and COVID-19: Part two p. 121
Jean- Claude Dubois
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_32_20  
Along with the legends about epidemic demons, China has developed over the centuries a medical approach to epidemic diseases based on the teachings of Huang Di Nei Jing (《黄帝内经》Huangdi's Internal Classic), Nan Jing (《难经》Classic of Difficult Issues), and Shang Han Lun (《伤寒论》Treatise on Cold Damage). Other doctors and scientists participated in this evolution of knowledge, like Wang Shuhe (王叔和), Ge Hong (葛洪), Chao Yuanfang (巢元方), Sun Simiao (孙思邈), and Liu Wansu (刘完素). However, it was in the 17th century, after the great break of the Song, Jin, and Yuan eras that an innovative spirit, Wu Youke (吴又可 1582–1652) first foresaw the existence of microorganisms as we know them now. His Wen Yi Lun (《瘟疫论》Treatise on Pestilence) foreshadows an original approach to epidemic diseases, particularly emerging infectious diseases of the 21st century. After them, traditional Chinese medicine developed a comprehensive method of diagnosing and treating of these diseases (Epidemic Diseases Theory 瘟疫学说) within the School of Heat Diseases (温病学派). In a third article, we will examine some applications in the treatment of the SARS 2003–2004 epidemic (非典型肺炎) and the current COVID-19 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) pandemic.
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Doc hay: A chinese herbalist combating the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in America Highly accessed article p. 133
Yemeng Chen
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_24_20  
This is a story about a Chinese herbalist Ing “Doc” Hay who combated the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in the America West. As an immigrant, he came to the States as a laborer, but he had knowledge of Chinese herbal medicine due to his family heritage. This made it possible for him to start practicing in the Chinese community in John Day, Oregon, until 1948 when he retired. During the time of the pandemic running wild in the 1910s, he prescribed formulas aimed at flu and boiled herbal decoction, personally delivering it to a working site for those Chinese laborers as well as non-Chinese patients. None of the laborer patients treated by him died during this deadly pandemic. Due to his success and fame, his practice was booming even after the Chinese community disappeared in John Day in later years. Doc Hay is always remembered in the history of earlier development in eastern Oregon, so that the site of his practicing, Kam Wah Chung and Co. Building, is now a national historic landmark. And more importantly, he has also been remembered by Chinese herbal medicine practitioners in the United States.
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REVIEWS Top

Understanding the treatment of COVID-19 and other epidemics in traditional Chinese medicine p. 138
Liyun Chen, Shiyun Yan
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_35_20  
Epidemics spread quickly and are highly contagious. And there has been a profound understanding of etiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) falls into the category of “epidemic dampness”, and the core pathogenesis is that latency of externally-contracted dampness turbidity and epidemic toxin in pleurodiaphragmatic interspace provokes Shaoyang ministerial fire and causes concomitant attack of external and internal pathogens, resulting in wood fire tormenting metal and the upward rushing of dampness fire (toxin), ultimately leading to a syndrome of epidemic toxin blocking the lung. Throughout the treatment of COVID-19, Professor Shiyun Yan uses the “harmonizing” method and sticks to the basic principles of “protecting middle qi, pectoral qi and yin fluid” to consolidate the root, dispersing externally and clearing internally and using in combination drugs cold and warm in property. The specific treatment approaches include ventilating lung and expelling pathogens, clearing heat and removing the toxin, tonifying qi and nourishing yin, activating blood and resolving stasis, resolving dampness, and dredging collaterals, to prevent the patient's condition from getting worse and save the dying.
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Discussing the dietary regimen and disease prevention and its application as an anti-epidemic measure p. 146
Jianhe Fang, Weifeng Zhu, Hongning Liu
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_36_20  
This article discusses the role of dietary regimen in the traditional culture of Chinese medicine according to its origin. Dietary regimen is a technique that inherits the traditional culture of Chinese medicine. Through analysis of the characteristics of the dietary regimen and the discussion of the idea of disease prevention, the application of the dietary regimen in disease prevention is sought. Under the guidance of three key factors, the application of the dietary regimen in disease prevention is mainly manifested in two aspects. First, the dietary regimen can be used to guide the daily reasonable diet to maintain the human body in a balance of Yin and Yang, which could prevent the occurrence of diseases. Second, on the basis of minimizing health loss, it can be used for disease treatment, adjuvant treatment, and rehabilitation. Finally, taking preventive treatment as the guiding ideology, the application of a dietary regimen as an “anti-epidemic” was briefly discussed.
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RESEARCHS Top

The idea and application of tuina in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 p. 152
Zhengyu Li
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_34_20  
While traditional Chinese medicine has displayed a positive and effective role in saving lives of COVID-19 patients, Tuina, which is an important component in Chinese medicine, has also shown its merits in enhancing the immune function and relieving symptoms in COVID-19 patients. This article elaborates the long history of Tuina in treating and preventing epidemic diseases and its effect in improving the immune function. It also introduces some special Tuina methods, for instance, sputum drainage by the back-patting method to enable the discharge of sputum; slant-scrubbing method applied on the hypochondriac regions to bring the effect of soothing the liver to regulate qi, which may also relieve anxiety of patients with COVID-19; and spine-pinching method to enhance human resistance to diseases, which is more suitable for the elderly and for children with mild or common types of COVID-19 and can also be used for health care and disease prevention among the general population. Tuina methods for children using the common children's specific Tuina points and manipulations to improve children's body constitution are also mentioned in the article. Self-acupoint Tuina for health care, including acupoints for prevention purposes, acupoints for early clinical stage (mild stage) and recovery stage, as well as acupoints for children health care and specific operations, is also illustrated in the article. Moreover, basic exercises for health care, such as eight-section brocade, Shaolin internal exercises, six-character formula, and change of tendons, are also presented. In the final analysis, this article is aimed at some ideas and feasible applications of Tuina therapy in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, in the hope to provide some worthy experience and introduce methods in preventing and fighting against COVID-19 to people all over the world.
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International communication of traditional Chinese medicine in the context of COVID-19 pandemic by analogy of directional solidification p. 158
Yingwen Cai, Xueyong Shen
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_25_20  
According to the phenomenon-taking of classified analog, directional solidification can be an excellent approach for international communication of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Attitudes toward TCM by Western Medicine (WM) can be represented by various morphologies of the solid/liquid interface. COVID-19 has created an urgent need for the worldwide spread of TCM. To counter any doubts and objections against TCM, COVID-19 pandemic provides a good opportunity, meanwhile a steady and firm pace forward should be kept. It is also necessary to resolve domestic controversies and to lower cultural shock. The philosophy of TCM can agree fairly well with dialectical materialism; the scientific connotation of pentacy in TCM can be explained through the symptoms of COVID-19-infected patients. A TCM understanding compatible with WM will accelerate its international acceptance, which could help to better elaborate the significance of humanity in TCM. Holistic medicine under the guidance of TCM principles is an important trend in medical development, whose framework is illustrated in a 4C+T diagram.
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Key to treating COVID-19: Removing phlegm from small airways p. 164
Qingqi Wang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_27_20  
According to autopsy reports, patients who died from COVID-19 had a lot of mucus in the lung that obstructed the airways, reduced the effect of mechanical ventilation, and even led to pulmonary failure. Traditional Chinese medicine literature mentions that “Inability to remove phlegm impairs the lung, which leads to death.”Hence one of the most urgent problems to be solved is to remove phlegm from the small airways. This article elaborates ten methods to remove phlegm for clinical reference.
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Research progress and analysis of moxibustion in prevention and treatment of acute infectious diseases p. 169
Haiyan Li, Chao Zhang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_28_20  
To introduce and evaluate current research progress of moxibustion in the prevention and treatment of acute infectious diseases, related literature in CNKI, Wanfang Data, and SinoMed was retrieved and analyzed by the present study. Results showed abundant studies on the mechanism of action of moxibustion in the prevention and treatment of acute infectious diseases with remarkable clinical efficacy. The present study also summarizes the commonly-occurring problems and found out the deficiencies in existing studies in hope of providing more reference for further research.
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The role of the “Traditional Chinese Medicine Proclamation” in cholera prevention and control in modern China p. 175
Jie Ma, Xi Wang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_30_20  
During the period of social transformation in modern China, the sudden onslaught of malignant infectious diseases, the helplessness of the public, and the impact of the modern Western medical system promoted the profound self-revolution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Multiple factors, including politics, economy or religion contributed to the formulation of paper-based “TCM proclamation”. This paper, based on the prevention and control of cholera advocated in TCM proclamation, analyzes the new ways of cholera spread in China in early modern times and the complicated “country-region-medical institutions-other institutions-individuals” correlations.
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Prevention and treatment of “Epidemic toxin, pathogenic dampness, and lung deficiency” after COVID-19 recovery based on the theory of “Preventive treatment of diseases” in traditional Chinese medicine p. 181
Jing Ai, Linguangjin Wu, Ting Wang, Wanli Deng, Xiaotian Zhang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_29_20  
Due to the sequelae and recurrence in patients with COVID-19 after recovery. This article, based on the theory of “preventive treatment of diseases” in traditional Chinese medicine, which believes that the three pathogenic factors of epidemic toxin, dampness, and lung deficiency are the fundamental causes of the recurrence of COVID-19. The treatment strategies are to remove pathogenic factors, strengthen qi, nourish yin, clear heat, moisten dryness, and at the same time, reinforce the lung, spleen and kidney, and soothe the liver. Through a variety of treatments such as oral administration, external treatment, and skin absorption, it provides a new idea and method for the management of the recurrence of COVID-19.
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