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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2020
Volume 3 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 189-256

Online since Monday, December 28, 2020

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SPECIAL SECTION ON EPIDEMIC DISEASES  

The cognitive evolution from “Plague” to “Infectious Disease” p. 189
Xi Gao
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_31_20  
According to the Grand Chinese Dictionary, plague is defined to be an acute infectious disease. The Chinese term “infectious disease” is not what it is commonly thought originated from Japanese. The medical nomenclature shift from the traditional “plague” to the modern “infectious disease” is completed by the medical missionaries, Chinese scholars, and the national authority, each utilising different strategies. It is a history of acceptance concerning the concept of “infectious disease” from academia to national level. The conscious use of infectious disease-related thought and terminology by Chinese officials and doctors when studying infectious disease is a scientific modernization towards the understanding of epidemics. In a sense, this evolution of medical knowledge embodies the modernization of infectious disease in China.
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Comparative study of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine in the treatment of Coronavirus p. 201
Li Shen, Ke Wang, Jia Zhou
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_45_20  
Taking the process of treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as the research object, this article compares the characteristics of Western medicine and TCM from the perspectives of aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Western medicine and TCM each has its own theoretical system. Each has its own exposition in explaining the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, and each has its own characteristics and advantages in diagnosis and treatment. Integrating TCM and Western medicine can improve the effect of treatment by forming a coordinated traditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment method.
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RESEARCH ARTICLES Top

The plant Cynomorium in maltese materia medica p. 205
Charles Savona-Ventura
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_37_20  
The search for possible effective local therapeutic agents led to the discovery of a plant that was later known as Fungus Melitensis. This parasitic flowering plant was initially believed to grow only on a small islet off Gozo known variably as General's or Fungus Rock. It is now known to be more widely distributed with a range extending from the Canary Islands to China. First mentioned in 1647 by the Maltese historian Gian Francesco Abela, the plant was later described and illustrated in 1674 by the Palermo botanist Paolo Boccone, while a detailed clinical treatise was prepared in 1689 by the Maltese physician Gio Francesco Bonamico. Based on the principles of the “doctrine of signatures,” the plant was considered useful by virtue of its color in conditions involving bleeding, while on the basis of the phallic appearance, it was considered efficacious for venereal disease. The medicinal properties of the plant became renowned throughout the European continent, increasing the demand for its collection and export. Measures were introduced to limit the collection to authorized individuals while physical access to the islet was made more difficult by cutting away the sloping parts of the islet. The plant lost its medicinal reputation during the early decades of the 19th century and has now been relegated to the annals of medical history and folklore, though it is still designated a protected species.
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The records of anatomy in ancient China p. 210
Shuijin Shao, Haidong Guo, Fangfang Mou, Chunxia Guo, Lisheng Zhang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_18_20  
Through long-term observations and repeated practices of human body structure, anatomical knowledge in ancient China has gradually developed from the sprouting period when ancient Chinese hunted animals for survival, to anatomical exploration, which breaks the shackles of fear and religious rites. For example, Hua Tuo (华佗), a famous doctor in the period of The Three Kingdoms, did exquisite abdominal surgery; Yan Luozi (烟萝子), a Taoist priest in the period of The Five Dynasties, drew a map of human anatomy; Wang Weiyi (王唯一), a medical official in Northern Song dynasty, was responsible for casting acupuncture bronze figures, an anatomical mold for practicing acupuncture; Song Ci (宋慈), a forensic expert in Southern Song Dynasty, wrote Xi Yuan Ji Lu (《洗冤集录》 Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified); Wang Qingren (王清任), a physician in Qing Dynasty wrote Yi Lin Gai Cuo (《医林改错》 Correction on Errors in Medical Works). Ancient Chinese anatomy is far ahead of Western anatomy in understanding and describing human body structures. It has made great contributions to the emergence of Huang Di Nei Jing (《黄帝内经》 Huangdi's Internal Classic) and laid a solid foundation for the establishment of visceral manifestation theory and meridian and collateral theory. Even now, it has served the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine and clinical practices. Anatomical knowledges, such as relevant operation records, books, Atlas, models in ancient China, especially the names of Zang-organ and Fu-organ, bones and five sense organs, are still used in modern anatomy and modern medicine, making indelible contributions to the development of modern anatomy in China.
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Qi, return to bodily experience: A new perspective of Qi and Qigong experience research p. 216
Xinzhe Huang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_19_20  
For a long period, Qi and Qigong experience were studied within the theoretical framework of natural science, psychology, and TCM. This article reviews the modes and problems of Qi and Qigong researches, discusses the theoretical basis of phenomenological researches in anthropology, exemplifies some important researches and ideas about bodily experience. Furthermore, the possibility and difficulty of utilizing these methodologies and ideas are analyzed out as well. Aims to open up a brand-new horizon of Qi and Qigong research, enriches our understandings of the culture of Qi and Qigong, and makes Qigong better adapt itself to the contemporary and the world.
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Medical culture about Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum and its maritime silk road p. 220
Jing Tian, Zhenguo Wang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_20_20  
Initially, Chen Xiang (沉香 Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum) was exotic, but it has been playing an important role in the development of traditional Chinese culture and medicine. This article explores the reason for differences in the quality of ancient and modern Chen Xiang (沉香 Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum) by analyzing the essential factors including the prosperity and decline of Maritime Silk Road, the relocation of the producing area, and the process of aroma forming. Based on the development and application of Chen Xiang (沉香 Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum) in Chinese literature and art, traditional Chinese medicine, and folk life over the past 2000-odd years, this article puts contends that Chen Xiang (沉香 Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum), which is endowed with the connotation of Chinese culture and health, should assume its new role as the traditional Chinese medical and cultural carrier on the New Silk Road.
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Scientific study reveals that electroacupuncture technique can treat PCOS symptoms p. 225
Daniela Donoso Paredes
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_43_20  
The efficiency of traditional Chinese medicine theory and acupoints shows once more its accurate regulatory capacity by improving women biological cycles with the use of electroacupuncture (EA). Results presented in a research study that preformed ovulation induction in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), successfully provided data supporting acupuncture as a natural treatment for infertile women, with no significant side effects. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how EA treatment can induce ovulation related to the hormonal and neuronal system in women affected by PCOS. This study introduces proof of effectivity and improvement based on the research of the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, that presents a study on how EA can be an alternative to ovulation-inducing drugs, to be considered as a possible holistic regulator of PCOS and symptoms. The study covered 24 women with PCOS and oligo-/amenorrhea who received EA in a low frequency of 2 Hz with a total of 14 treatments applied for 3 months. Samples were taken three times during the study to see fluctuations in hormonal, ovulatory, and symptomatic behavior of PCOS. Results demonstrated effective regular ovulatory inductions in more than a third of women.
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NEWS AND VIEWS Top

Decoding an old 1907 prescription of Dr. Ing Hay (“Doc Hay”): One of the earliest Chinese medicine doctors in the United States Highly accessed article p. 232
Arthur Yin Fan, Louis Lei Jin, Boling Huang, Mingxia Yu, Xiaoyin Zhao, Sarah Faggert Alemi
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_33_20  
Objectives: Chinese medicine doctors have practiced in the United States since April of 1854, the world's first Chinese medicine doctor's memorial is Kam Wah Chung Museum in John Day, Oregon, U.S., to commemorate Dr.Ing Hay (”Doc Hay” 伍于念) and his business partner Lung On (梁光荣). There were few studies to explore Doc Hay's real practice and prescription, while most of papers focused on Doc Hay's legend life. This paper aims to analyze and interpret one of the intriguing herbal prescriptions that Doc Hay had hand-written. Materials and Methods: Dr. Arthur Yin Fan made an academic travel to Kam Wah Chung museum on August 5, 2018 and examined the books and hand-written prescriptions of Doc Hay, which were not exhibited to the public at that time. This paper analyzes and interprets one of herbal prescriptions that Doc Hay had hand-written in 1907. Interpretation process included four steps: (1): Transform Doc Hay's hand-written prescription (with original herb names) to standard herb names in Chinese. (2): Induct and rearrange the herb name into groups based on herb property characteristics and then translate them into both PinYin names and English names. Analyzation of the prescription may include in what classic formula (s) routinely introduced in Chinese medicine textbooks. (3): Analyze the herbal action for each group and potential symptoms or conditions the patient may have had. An analysis of classic formula (s) used in the prescription may represent what clinical condition was being treated at that time. (4): Combine the analysis to give a comprehensive picture of the patient. Results: The prescription consists of 67 herbs, total 934.6 grams, and including Yin Qiao Powder (银翘散), Sang Ju Decoction (桑菊饮), Zhi Sou Powder (止嗽散), Qing Ying Decoction (清营汤), Xi Jiao Di Huang Decoction (犀角地黄汤), Long Dan Xie Gan Decoction (龙胆泻肝汤) and Chai Hu Shu Gan Powder (柴胡疏肝散). Speculation indicated that the prescription was for a patient who had obvious pulmonary infection accompanied by severe cough, and probably had prolonged pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) also with acute respiratory infection caused by other bacteria or viruses. Based on the analysis of composition of this prescription, it can be used for the treatment of epidemic diseases. Conclusion: The majority of herbs used in this prescription are commonly included in the herbal medicines in China used to effectively counter severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1 and currently COVID-19, it might be Doc Hay's basic formula for patients with “Spanish Flu” during the 1918-1920 pandemic.
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An important acupuncture demonstration in the history of legalization of acupuncture in the United States p. 241
Sam Xian Sheng Huang, Jun Hu
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_38_20  
This article details a public acupuncture demonstration that took place on May 9, 1972, in San Francisco, California. It was conducted by two traditional Chinese medicine doctors Pien Bae Chi (卞伯岐) and Leung Kok Yuen (梁觉玄), and was observed by 500 American medical doctors. This was an important public acupuncture demonstration in the early history of acupunccture in the United States (US). It directly promoted the passage of the first acupuncture bill by California government and had a significant impact on the legalization of acupuncture in California.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Research advances of traditional Chinese medicine in cancer immunotherapy p. 245
Jing Li, Shengqi Wang, Neng Wang, Zhiyu Wang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_42_20  
Tumorigenesis are closely associated with the immune function of the human body. Immunotherapy has emerged as a novel and promising treatment strategy in multiple malignancies in the 21st century. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively used for cancer treatment in China and surrounding countries for it exerts efficient therapeutic effects with few side effects. In recent years, studies have demonstrated that TCM plays a unique and reliable role in regulating tumor immunity. TCM can enhance the antitumor immune response function by regulating the secretion of cytokines, reshaping the balance of immune cells, and regulating immune checkpoints to relieve the immunosuppression. In addition, TCM can reduce the side effects (e.g., cytokine storm) of cancer immunotherapy. Based on the current research of active immunotherapy and passive immunotherapy, this review summarizes the potential applications and existing problems of TCM in tumor immunotherapy. This review may be helpful in illuminating the scientific basis of TCM in tumor immunotherapy, promoting its internationalization, as well as shedding innovating new strategies for the development of tumor immunotherapy.
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Wang Shixiong's medicine career p. 254
Lin Yu
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_46_20  
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