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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2021
Volume 4 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 137-196

Online since Thursday, September 30, 2021

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RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT  

Boym and Rémusat: Communication of traditional chinese medicine and the rise of western sinology p. 137
Xi- Ping Zhang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_34_21  
This article provides an introduction to Michel Boym (1612–1659) and Jean Pierre Abel Rémusat (1788–1832) and examines the research on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) conducted by the two prominent sinologists. This work points out that Michel Boym introduced TCM to the West and Rémusat was the first to write a doctoral thesis on TCM. A historical overview of the translation, communication and impact of TCM in Europe at that time reveals that this communication of TCM to the West played a significant role in the rise of the study of Sinology in Europe.
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RESEARCH ARTICLES Top

Approaches and perspectives of the westward spread of traditional Chinese medicine: A case study of the Radicis Chynae p. 141
Xi Gao
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_36_21  
Some Western scholars have re-examined the concept of “Chinese medicine” and its knowledge system under the influence of global history research methods in recent years, in an attempt to understand the factors that led to the spread of Chinese medicine around the world, and what kind of Chinese medicine is constituted outside of China. Thus, researchers have studied the initial stage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)'s entry into the western world, tracing its roots and observing new knowledge systems formed in the process of cross-cultural communication. Responding to the research of Western scholars, this paper studies the Radicis Chynae (《中国根书简》 Letters on Chinese Root), a monograph written by Andreas Vesalius, a famous European anatomist who lived in the 16th century. The author of this article examined the understanding and interpretation of Chinese medicine by the European intelligentsia from 16th to 19th century, investigated the influence of the westward spread of TCM on the scientific revolution and medical progress in Europe, and analyzed its relationship with the rise of Sinology in Europe. This article discusses the knowledge interaction between Chinese medicine and the formation of modern European medicine from the perspective of global history and cross-culture.
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Early interactions between the hellenistic and Greco-Roman World and the Chinese: The ancient afro-Eurasian routes in medicine and the transmission of disease p. 148
Ioannis Solos
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_32_21  
This paper discusses the historical exchanges, communications, and circumstances that initially enabled the opening of trade routes between China and the Hellenistic and Greco-Roman world. In addition, it explains how ancient Greeks first became aware of China, and the original premise of trading silk for horses. Historical Chinese texts are analyzed to identify references to the Hellenistic and Greco-Roman world in an attempt to elucidate the extent of official interactions between the two cultures. Historical and archaeological sources confirm that trade existed for millennia before Western Europeans traveled to China during the Age of Exploration. The thesis describes how silk and disease traveled from east to west and explains the historical conditions that allowed the exchange of ideas, practices, beliefs, and culture.
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American patients' understanding of traditional Chinese medicine in the late 19th century: An interpretation of letters from The Science of Oriental Medicine p. 158
Yu- Qing Qi, Hong Zheng, Shan Liu
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_28_21  
This study explores American patients' understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the late 19th century by referring to letters from American patients recorded in The Science of Oriental Medicine, written by Tan Fuyuan (谭富园), a Chinese medicine doctor working in the United States in the late Qing dynasty. Identifying a focus on significant effects, pulse diagnosis, herbal teas, dietary control, and long-term treatment, the results also discussed the differences between TCM and Western medicine in simple terms to show that the “ideological” spread of TCM was based on its curative effect. However, the “theoretical” spread of TCM requires more of intercultural exchanges.
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Spread of traditional chinese medicine to the west and the development of sinology: A case study based on the translation of traditional Chinese medicine literature by German doctor gottlieb Olpp p. 165
Wei- Man Yuan
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_27_21  
German doctor Gottlieb Olpp played an important role in Sino-German medical exchanges during the late Qing dynasty. During his stay in China for more than 9 years, he wrote a large number of texts related to local Chinese medical and hygienic conditions. In these works, he introduced traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its situation at that time but also translated TCM literature. His translations and his achievements facilitated the development of sinology in Germany. Not only was he responsible for the development of the method used by German sinologists in translating TCM literature, but also his work gave an impetus to the combination of academic goals and current considerations in sinology studies. In this way, the study of TCM is the internal force driving the development of sinology.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Conveying traditional Chinese medicine to Europe in the 17th–18th centuries from the tradition of natural history p. 170
Yin- Quan Wang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_30_21  
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Sinology in seattle: The university of washington and its influence on the study of Chinese medicine p. 176
Sean Bradley
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_31_21  
The University of Washington has played a pivotal role in the field of sinology with faculty and alumni producing major publications in Chinese history, literature, phonetics, and linguistics. These contributions have been instrumental in the development of sinology as a field and have both directly and indirectly influenced the study of Chinese Medicine. By tracing the history of the Department of Asian Languages and Literature and examining several major figures, we can better understand how these individuals shaped the development of Chinese Medicine and contributed to its spread worldwide.
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Description Générale de la Chine and the spread of traditional Chinese medicine to the West in the 18th century p. 181
Zhen Li
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_35_21  
Description Générale de la Chine is an important sinology masterpiece published in France in the late 18th century. Its author Jean-Baptiste Grosier summarized and rearranged a large number of first-hand materials to systematically introduce China's national traditions and culture. A great part of this book introduced ancient Chinese medicine, which facilitated the unbiased understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Europe and fostered a knowledge dialogue between the Chinese and Western medicine systems. Such content also provided a historical reference for how to promote the further going out of TCM to the world.
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Dissemination of traditional chinese medicine in germany from an intercultural perspective: A brief introduction of franz hübotter p. 188
Fang- Chao Liu
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_33_21  
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the cultural heritage of all humankind. TCM not only embodies the cultural crystallization of the region and the nation, but also performs the important mission of curing the lives, saving the sick and maintaining the health of the people. In the history of the spread of Chinese medicine to the West, foreign missionaries have played an important role, and researches about this role have continued in China. In the history of Chinese medicine in Germany, there is a pivotal figure named Franz Hübotter (1881–1967), who broke through the deadlock in the academic research of Chinese medicine in the 19th century in Germany, but the discussion on his contribution has been comparatively rare in China. His works and translations are not only of medical value, but are also valuable historically, culturally, and socially. The historical development of TCM has the authenticity of history, the integrity of the environment, and the richness of the times. Medical experts have explored and verified the value of medicine. Translators and scholars are mainly concerned with the dissemination of knowledge from an intercultural perspective. This paper provides a primitive and objective introduction to Franz Hübotter, hoping to trigger off the secondary research among scholars of different professional backgrounds and to expand professional thinking, and then get over the barriers of disciplines.
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Shared wisdom about health preservation in traditional maltese and Chinese proverbs p. 194
Kai- Wei Zhang, Charles Savona-Ventura, Jing- Bo Lu
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_29_21  
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