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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2021
Volume 4 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 71-136

Online since Wednesday, June 30, 2021

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SPECIAL SECTION ON EPIDEMIC DISEASES  

Acquisition and Dissemination of Anti-Epidemic Medical Prescriptions During the Outbreaks in the Qing Dynasty of China p. 71
Xi- Yang Liu
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_10_21  
During the epidemics in the Qing dynasty, many medical professionals, nonprofessionals, and social organizations collected and sorted medical prescriptions related to infectious diseases. These people also compiled, published, disseminated, and consulted related medical formularies. The above historical event can be viewed as the construction and dissemination of medical knowledge. They edited and published medical formularies on infectious diseases with lower cost and in flexible ways by taking the initiative and giving full scope to creativity. Diverse anti-epidemic medical prescriptions from these medical formularies can be used for infectious diseases in the event of the outbreaks. However, the therapeutic effects of classical prescriptions and folk recipes cannot be regarded as the same. The wide circulation of anti-epidemic medical prescriptions and medical formularies was essentially a process of epidemic prevention resource allocation. Not only did it enable many nonprofessionals to participate in epidemic prevention and control, but it also enhanced awareness, knowledge, and capacity for epidemic prevention at the individual level. At the same time, due to the uneven quality and individual differences in the physical fitness and condition of the prescriptions and formularies, they had the capacity of causing inconveniences to the readers or patients.
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Status of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Greece and its Approach on COVID-19 Pandemic p. 78
Grivas Constantinos, Hatzopoulou Anna, Kaparianos Dimitrios, Panagiotaras Taxiarchis, Tzoumerka Vasiliki
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_16_21  
Although acupuncture was first introduced to Greece in about 1938, it was not until 1973 that an institution was created to teach it, where its study was limited to medical doctors (MDs). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was not taught to non-MDs until 2004. Even today, TCM has not been integrated into the Greek health system, and in a few exceptions, TCM was mainly associated with pain management. A few private schools teach TCM theory and practice in the fields of acupuncture, moxibustion, herbology, gua sha, and tui na (Chinese massage). This study examines the use of Chinese single herbs and formulas for prevention or treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece, as well as issues with the availability of Chinese herbs and proposals for substitutes from the traditional Greek medicine point of view.
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RESEARCH ARTICLES Top

Traditional Medicine Diagnostic Codes in ICD-11 and Alternative Diagnostic Classifications in the Mainstream Healthcare p. 86
Ioannis Solos, William Morris, Jian- Ping Zhu, Mei Hong
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_14_21  
In 2018, the 11th Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) defined a diagnostic code list for standard traditional medicine (TM) conditions. The codes improve patient safety by providing more comprehensive and accurate medical records for hospitals in the Western Pacific Region. In these facilities, TM is often a standard of care for those populations. In several mainstream media sources, writers are circumventing evidence-based peer-reviewed medical literature by unduly influencing public opinion and, in this case, against the new ICD-11 codes. The dangers imposed by the transgression of popular writing onto the discipline of peer-reviewed works are present since best practices in medical record-keeping will fail without the inclusion of TM in the ICD-11 codes. Such failures directly affect the health of the patients and policymakers in regions where TM and conventional medicine are combined. This article investigates the boundaries between substantial evidence and popular opinion. In this era where media is used to manipulate evidence, the reader's use of sound judgment and critical thought are thwarted. This article also challenges three controversial themes in pop literature, including the threat to endangered species, increased patient risk, and contaminants in the TM. These themes are made without evidence and are, in fact, of flawed logic. There is no reason to assume that improved medical record-keeping and knowledge of patient cases increase risks.
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Case Studies on Acupuncture Principles in Headaches p. 93
Saroj Kumar Pradhan, Andreas Rudolf Gantenbein, Yi- Ming Li, Sebastian Frese, Susanne Lehmann, Felix Angst
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_17_21  
Objective: This observational cohort pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of the acupuncture methods, Jiu Cang Zhen (JCZ) and Huang Guan (HG), on changes in headache intensity in an inpatient, multimodal Zurzach Headache Programme (ZHP). Methods: Study participants consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic headache disorder (headache ds, 30 days per month) or daily persistent headache. All patients received conventional therapies with active and passive approaches. The patient group was treated with JCZ and HG acupuncture methods, receiving a total of six to eight acupuncture sessions of 50 to 60 minutes each, during a 3–4-week multimodal ZHP at the RehaClinic Bad Zurzach. Pain intensity was quantified using a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) before and after each acupuncture therapy session. Results: Ten patients were recruited, six women and four men, with a mean age of 41.7 (standard deviation, [SD] =13.9). A reduction in headache intensity was reported by all patients in each of the sessions. The average NRS for pain was 4.21 (SD = 1.44) before acupuncture and 1.24 (SD = 0.93) after acupuncture (means first by number of sessions, then per n = 10 patients). This resulted in a mean difference of 2.97 (SD = 1.04), corresponding to a standardized response mean of 2.85 (95% confidence interval: 2.11–3.60, one-tailed P < 0.001), meaning there was a large effect. Conclusions: This pilot study shows that JCZ and HG are suitable acupuncture methods for reducing headache intensity in the treatment of headaches. A comparison with the conventional classical acupuncture methods from the acupuncture textbook for traditional Chinese medicine students in China, exploration with a larger patient group, and prolonged monitoring of pain behavior could be foci of follow-up investigations.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Current Paradigm Shifts in Diet: A Review of the Chinese Traditional Diet p. 99
Yin- Chen Chang, Xia Liu, Qi Xu, Jia- Zhen Wu, Hong- Yi Shen
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_13_21  
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Textual Research on the Eye Diseases Names in Mai Shu (《脉书》 The Book of Pulse) Excavated from Zhangjiashan, China p. 107
Kai- Hui Yuan
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_11_21  
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Research on Unearthed Traditional Chinese Medicine Documents p. 114
Ben- Rui Zhang, Ye- Li Yu, Ru- Qing Zhang, Yuan Ding
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_15_21  
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NEWS AND VIEWS Top

Interview with Dr. Liu Qingquan: Traditional Chinese Medicine for COVID-19 Diagnosis and Treatment p. 124
Xin- Yue Chang, Hai- Ying Li, Er- Liang Wang, Yu- Chao Liu
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_19_21  
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Effect of Practicing Calligraphy on the Development of Children's Emotional Intelligence p. 127
Bin Zhou, Jun- Sheng Liu, Biao Sang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_18_21  
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Study of the Medical Journal Zhong Yi Za Zhi (《中医杂志》 Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) during the Republican Period in China p. 132
Jing- Fei Yan, Li- Li Wang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_21_21  
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