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NEWS & VIEWS
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 132-136

Study of the Medical Journal Zhong Yi Za Zhi (《中医杂志》 Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) during the Republican Period in China


Shanghai Museum of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China

Date of Submission08-May-2021
Date of Acceptance28-May-2021
Date of Web Publication30-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Li- Li Wang
Shanghai Museum of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_21_21

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How to cite this article:
Yan JF, Wang LL. Study of the Medical Journal Zhong Yi Za Zhi (《中医杂志》 Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) during the Republican Period in China. Chin Med Cult 2021;4:132-6

How to cite this URL:
Yan JF, Wang LL. Study of the Medical Journal Zhong Yi Za Zhi (《中医杂志》 Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) during the Republican Period in China. Chin Med Cult [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 27];4:132-6. Available from: https://www.cmaconweb.org/text.asp?2021/4/2/132/320175




  Brief Introduction to Zhong Yi Za Zhi (《中医杂志》 Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) during the Republican Period Top


Shanghai Society of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine

The Shanghai Society of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) was founded in the 10th year of the Republic of China (1921) by famous doctors Ding Ganren (丁甘仁), Qin Bowei (秦伯未), Xia Yingtang (夏应堂), and others. Together with the Shenzhou Medical Association and the Chinese Medical Association, they were regarded as three major Chinese medicine associations in Shanghai. The purpose of establishing the society was to unite colleagues in the field of TCM for academic research. To build a platform for academic exchange among members of the society, the Shanghai Society of TCM created the Journal of TCM as its societal journal, and it had been published for a total of 30 issues. With the aim of “elucidating TCM theory and popularizing TCM knowledge,” the Journal of TCM had promoted the TCM culture. During its operation, Wang Juren (王鞠仁) served as the Chief Editor, and the daily editorial work was completed by Ding Zhongying (丁仲英) and others. Although it was only published for 10 years, the number of copies in circulation was more than 10,000, and it was sold in home country and abroad. Domestic sales covered areas from Shanghai and Hangzhou, to as far as Fengtian (an old name for Liaoning), Heilongjiang, and Sichuan. Overseas sales reached Southeast Asia and as far as San Francisco. For example, the 13th issue of the Journal once published a letter from Tan Xiaozhang (谭小张), an overseas Chinese who ran a Chinese medicine clinic in the United States. He wrote, “I have lived in the United States for more than 10 years. Though far away from homeland, your journal closely connected me with domestic talents to discuss difficult questions. I benefitted a lot from it and am very happy. If I were not live afar, I will be honored to join your society and learn from the other members.”[1]

The founder of the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Ding Ganren [Figure 1], as the founder of the Journal of TCM, was one of the representative figures in the later period of Menghe Medicine (孟河医派).
Figure 1: Portrait of Ding Ganren (丁甘仁)

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Ding first learned from Ma Zhongqing (马仲清) and Ding Songxi (丁松溪) and later was tutored by famous master Mr. Ma Peizhi (马培之). After completing his studies, he first practiced medicine in Menghe and Suzhou and then moved to Shanghai, where he became a successful doctor and was famous there. While treating patients, Ding also aspired to cultivate young descendants of TCM. Together with famous doctors Xia Yingtang and Yu Jihong (余继鸿) in Shanghai, they raised money to run medical school. In 1917, he founded the Shanghai Special School of TCM. After 1919, he opened the School of TCM for Women. Both schools have trained a large number of high-quality TCM graduates. In 1920, Ding also established the organizations “Chinese Medical Association” and “Jiangsu Federation of TCM,” issued Guo Yi Za Zhi (《国医杂志》 Chinese Medical Journal) and other periodical, and founded the Shanghai Society of TCM [Figure 2]. He served as the first President of the Society.[2]
Figure 2: Shanghai Society of Traditional Chinese Medicine

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  Editorial Staff of the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine during the Republican Period Top


Editor-in-chief

Wang Juren, formerly known as Juren (菊人), came from Anhui province. He studied at the Shanghai Special School of TCM from 1917 to 1922. He served as the Secretary General of Shanghai Society of TCM and the Editor in Chief of Journal of TCM. In 1922, he created the monthly journal Jiang Su Quan Sheng Zhong Yi Lian He Hui Yue Kan (《江苏全省中医联合会月刊》 Journal of Jiangsu Federation of TCM). Together with Qin Bowei and Xu Bannong (许半农), they founded the Shanghai Chinese Medicine College, and he served as the Chief of General Affairs and Professor at the College. Later, he moved to Hangzhou with his family due to medical condition.[3]

Editors

The main editors of the Journal of TCM included Qin Bowei and Zhang Chengzhi (章成之).

Qin Bowei,[4] a modern Chinese medicine physician (1901–1970), whose given name was Zhiji (之济), also known by his literary name Qianzhai (谦斋), was born in Pudong, Shanghai. He was the grandson of the famous Shanghai doctor Qin Naige (秦乃歌). He studied in the Shanghai Special School of TCM. Dedicated to the cause of TCM education, he founded the China Medical College with Zhang Cigong (章次公) and Xu Banlong (许半龙) in 1928 and served as a teacher at the college. He united colleagues of TCM and founded the Guiding Society of TCM. Qin edited magazines including Zhong Yi Zhi Dao Lu (《中医指导录》 Catalogue for the Guidance of TCM) and Zhong Yi Zhi Dao Cong Shu (《中医指导丛书》 A Series of Guide Books of TCM). He also founded a TCM Sanatorium in 1938. After 1949, he successively served as the Dean of Academic Affairs of Beijing College of TCM, TCM Consultant for the Ministry of Health, Central Committee Member of the Democratic Party of Farmers and Workers, and Member of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th National Committee of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. Besides clinical affairs and teaching, he had written as many as 50–60 pieces of works. Among which the important ones were Zhong Yi Lin Zheng Bei Yao (《中医临证备要》 Guidelines for Chinese Medicine Clinical Practice), Zhong Yi Ru Men (《中医入门》 Introduction to TCM), Nei Jing Zhi Yao Qian Jie (《内经知要浅解》 Simple Annotation on Essential Knowledge of Inner Classic), and Qian Zhai Yi Hua Jiang Gao (《谦斋医话讲稿》 Medical Lectures Notes of [Qin] Qian-Zhai).[5]

Zhang Chengzhi was born in Dantu county, Jiangsu province. Under the tutelage of Ding Ganren, he went to Shanghai Special School of TCM for part-time study and then worked as an intern at the Guangyi Hospital of TCM for 3 years. At the end of 1928, together with Ding's disciples Qin Bowei and Cheng Menxue (程门雪), they founded the Shanghai Chinese Medicine College. He also wrote Yao Wu Xue (《药物学》 Herbology), Zhen Yu Chao (《诊余抄》 Extract after Diagnosis), and Zhang Ci Gong Yi An (《章次公医案》 Case Records of Zhang Cigong).


  Contents of the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine during the Republican Period Top


The Journal of TCM mainly consists of monographs, theories, herbology, notes, medical cases, proven recipes, views on hygiene, records on medical knowledge explanation and differentiation, literature garden, medical training, meeting minutes, advertisements, forward to periodical and congratulatory speech, etc.

Personal works with novel insight were included in the monographs part.[6] This section emphasized highly on innovation and new discovery, because the continuous development of Chinese medicine required continuous innovation. The President Mr. Ding attached great importance to it and published his article with the title Hou Sha Zheng Zhi Gai Yao (《喉痧症治概要》 Outline of the Patterns and Treatment of Throat Granular Disorder) to elaborate his new idea in the first issue of the Journal.

Articles proficient in the principles of medical science and fluent in writing were included in the theories part.[6] This special column emphasized the academic value of articles, and all of them were the unique views of medical science from various TCM physicians. Many physicians contributed actively, and there were almost 20 articles published in the first issue of the Journal of TCM. They were Cao Yinfu (曹尹甫)'s Wen Bing Shi Yu Tai Yang Yi (《温病始于太阳议》 Discussion on Warm Diseases Begin with Taiyang), Du Houzhi (杜厚之)'s Dou Zheng Lun (《痘症论》 Treatise on Small Pox), Bao Zhenhua (暴振华)'s Yao Bu Ke Chang Fu (《药不可常服》 Medicine Should Not be Taken Often), Zhu Wenxuan (诸文萱)'s Ye Ge Fan Wei Zheng Hou Ge Shu Er Zhi Fa Jun Ji Chun Yong Xiang Zao Lun (《噎膈反胃症候各殊而治法均忌纯用香燥论》 Treatise on Simple Therapy of Drying Dampness with Aroma Should be Contraindicated for Various Syndromes of Dysphagia and Nausea), Chen Jie (陈杰)'s Bian Huo Zhe Lun Da Qing Long Wu (《辨或者论大青龙误》 Differentiation or Treatise on Misuse of Major Green Dragon Decoction), Tao Kezhen (陶可箴)'s Lun Ji Jing Feng Ji Zhi Fa Zhi Da Lve (《论急惊风及治法之大略》 Discussion on Acute Infantile Convulsions and Therapies) and Lun Man Jing Feng Ji Zhi Fa Zhi Da Lve (《论慢惊风及治法之大略》Discussion on Chronic Infantile Convulsions and Therapies), Qin Bowei's Tang Rong Chuan Yi Lao Bing Pai Fu Da Shou Zu Fan Wei Yang Xu Bian (《唐容川以痨病脉浮大手足烦为阳虚辨》 Tang Rongchuan Differentiates Tuberculosis as Yang Deficiency with Floating Pulse and Feverishness in Palms and Soles), Liu Zuotong (刘佐彤)'s Xi Nu Bu Jie Ze Shang Zang Lun (《喜怒不节则伤脏论》 Discussion on Capricious Moods Damaging Viscera), Du Houzhi's Jing Feng Re Nve Lun (《惊风热疟辨》 Differentiation of Infantile Convulsions and Anemopyretic Malaria), Wang Juren's Jing Wen Xian Xia Zhi Wei Bing Wen Hou Xia Zhi Wei Bing Shu Shuo (《经文先夏至为病温后夏至为病暑说》 Statements of Warm-heat Diseases Occurred before Summer Solstice are Febrile Diseases and after Summer Solstice are Summer-heat Diseases), Cai Zaizhi (蔡载之)'s Zhen Zheng Lun (《疹症论》 Treatise on Small Pox), Chen Jie's Bing Tan Yin Zhe Yi Wen Yao He Zhi Yi (《病痰饮者以温药和之议》 Discussion on Harmonizing Patients with Phlegm and Retained Fluid by Warm Drugs), He Kunru (何昆如)'s Bing Tan Yin Zhe Yi Wen Yao He Zhi Yi (《病痰饮者以温药和之议》 Discussion on Harmonizing Patients with Phlegm and Retained Fluid by Warm Drugs), Zhu Wenxuan's Shao Yin Fu Fu Yang Wei Shun Shi Yi (《少阴负趺阳为顺释义》 Annotation on Shaoyin Meridians Less than Fuyang Meridians is Favorable), He Kunru's Shao Yin Fu Fu Yang Wei Shun Shi Yi (《少阴负趺阳为顺释义》 Annotation on Shaoyin Meridians Less than Fuyang Meridians is Favorable), Gong Leting (龚乐庭)'s Shao Yin Fu Fu Yang Wei Shun Shi Yi (《少阴负趺阳为顺释义》 Annotation on Shaoyin Meridians Less than Fuyang Meridians is Favorable), Chen Jie's Cheng Qi Yong Yu Shao Yin Si Ni Yong Yu Yang Ming Lun (《承气用于少阴四逆用于阳明论》 Discussion on Major Purgative Decoction Treating Shaoyin Diseases while Frigid Extremities Decoction Treating Yangming Diseases), and Cao Yinfu's Pin Nv Mu Nv Bian (《牝疟牡疟辨》 Differentiating Malaria of Yin Type and Yang Type).

Herbology column covered articles on knowledge of property and flavor of herbal medicines, as well as their application in herbal formulae.[6] There were two articles in the first issue. The first one was Guide to Drug Properties and Diseases Indication written by an unknown author, and the second one was Xu Youheng (许有恒)'s The Shape of Thunberg Fritillary Bulb and its Cultivation and Drying Process. These articles introduced the functions and application methods of various Chinese herbal medicines.

What one had learned, no matter from reading medical books or clinical practice, can be recorded in the notes column.[6] This column placed emphasis on the feelings and experiences in the process of reading and clinical practice. In the first issue, there were articles such as Chen Yaotang (陈耀堂)'s Notes on Chongdao Pavilion and Cao Yinfu's Yuan's Diagnosis and Treatment Experiences on Taiyang Syndrome.

Medical cases

In this column, there were medical cases with fluent principles of medical science, and they could be used as the criteria for future therapeutic principles. Medical cases, or medical records, were continuous records of doctors' process in treating diseases, differentiating syndromes, establishing therapeutic method, and formulating prescription and medication. There were several articles included in this column in the first issue, such as Ding Ganren's Si Bu Shan Fang Yi An (《思补山房医案》 Case Records of Sibu Mountain Villa) and Zhong Feng Yi An (《中风医案》 Case Records of Stroke), Tao Kezhen's Xue Zheng Yi An (《血症医案》 Case Records of Blood Diseases), Ye Jingqiu (叶劲秋)'s Gan En Zhi (《感恩志》 Records of Appreciation) and Chan Hou Xie Xie Yan An (《产后泄泻验案》 Proven Records of Postpartum Diarrhea), Gong Leting's Xu Lao Ke Xue Xing Shou Bian Tang An (《虚劳咳血形瘦便溏案》 Case Records of Consumptive Disease with Hemoptysis Emaciation and Loose Stool), Xu Jianmin (徐健民)'s Shi Wen Bing Hou Shen Hun An (《湿温病后神昏案》 Case Records of Unconsciousness after Contracting Damp-heat Diseases), and Cao Jiada (曹家达)'s Tang Xing Feng Gong Zhi Yan An (《唐姓缝工治验案》 Tailor Tang's Proven Records).

For proven recipes, regardless of the compatibility of medicines, as long as effective, they would be included in this column. There was no limitation on the variety of prescription. No matter prescriptions are heavy or light, single drug prescription or compounds, as long as the efficacy was accurate, all could be included in this column. Several articles on proven recipes were recorded in this part of the first issue, such as Ye Jingqiu's Jing Yan Mi Fang (《经验秘方》 Proven Secret Formulas), Du Houzhi's Feng Quan Yao Shang Fang (《疯犬咬伤方》 Formulas for Treating Mad Dog Bites), Zhu Wenxuan's Shen Xiao Sheng Ji Gao (《神效生肌膏》 Miraculous Cream Formula for Promoting Granulation), Jie Chuang Shen Xiao Fang (《疥疮神效方》 Miraculous Formula for Treating scabies) from Southern Shanghai Guangyi Hospital, and Dai Guan (戴观)'s Jiu Zhi Qiang Shang Fang (《救治枪伤方》 Formula for Treating Gunshot Wound) and Jie Gu Fang (《接骨方》 Bone-setting Formula).

Column of views on hygiene popularized the general knowledge of health and practical methods. With its simple, concise, and easy to understand language, it focused on the pursuit of popularizing health knowledge. There were four articles on health protection in the first issue, and they were Du Houzhi's Wei Sheng Qi Yao (《卫生七要》 Seven Essentials of Hygiene), He Kunru's Yan Jiu Yu Ren Shen Zhi Qiang Ruo (《烟酒与人身之强弱》 Relationship between Tobacco, Alcohol and Physical Strength), and Xu Jianmin's Dong Chuang Lun Zhi Ji Yu Fang Fa (《冻疮论治及预防法》 Treatment and Prevention of Chilblain) and Ru Er Bao Qin Zhi Hai (《乳儿抱寝之害》 Harm of Cuddling Infant While Sleeping), respectively.

Column of records on medical knowledge explanation and differentiation documented the analysis and attempt to answer matters related to medical science. This column mainly recorded the symposium held by the Shanghai Society of TCM, focusing on the study of medical science, and strengthening the exchange of medical skills among members. The published contents in the first issue included minutes for the first seminar, minutes for the second seminar, and special donation document for the first issue.

Column for literature garden only published poetry of the society members. Nonmember contributors would be declined. In the first issue, a total of eight poems were published, all of which were written by famous physicians who were members of the Shanghai Association of TCM, showing their lofty medical sentiment. They were respectively Zhu Wenxuan's Shi San Pian (《诗三篇》 Three Poems), Qin Bowei's Er Lan Shi Shi Gao (《二兰室诗稿》 Er Habitable Room Poem Manuscript), Xu Shaonan (徐少楠)'s Nuan Yun Han Yue Guan Shi Gao (《暖云寒月馆诗稿》 Poem Manuscript of Warm Cloud and Cold Moon Hall), Wang Juren's Shi Shi Shou (《诗十首》 Ten Poems), Gong Leting's Shi Si Shou (《诗四首》 Four Poems), Chen Jie's Shi San Shou (《诗三首》 Three Poems), He Kunru's Shi San Shou (《诗三首》 Three Poems), and Wang Juren's Xin Chao Lu (《心潮录》 Records of Thoughts and Emotions).

Medical training column covered communications and discussion on medical knowledge. There were two articles in the first issue, namely He Kunru's Da You Ren Wang Jue Fu Wen Yi (《答友人王觉夫问医》 Answer to Friend Wang Juefu's Medical Question), and Lv Shuping (吕叔平)'s Fu Yi Xue Xian Hua (《附医学闲话》 Appendices to Chatting about Medicine).

The column of meeting minutes covered important affairs and meetings. It focused on introducing the organization, arrangement of participants, and notification of appointment of the Shanghai Society of TCM. The first issue of the Journal of TCM published the constitution of Shanghai Society of TCM, minutes of founding congress, staff list, minutes of the welcome meeting, minutes of the staff meeting, minutes of the special donation meeting, and minutes of the medical community reunion.

Advertising column was one of the financial sources for the Shanghai Society of TCM. Its content mainly covered the opening of pharmaceutical shops, pharmaceutical advertisements, advertisement for medical and pharmaceutical newspapers, pharmaceutical companies, book publishing companies, establishment of medical organizations around the country, as well as opening of the individual clinics.

Forward to periodical was written by Wang Juren himself. He briefly introduced the historical development of TCM and emphatically expounded the main purpose and objective of establishing this periodical.

To celebrate the successful publishing of this journal, all parties in the field of TCM, social organizations and individuals, have sent congratulatory speeches. The social organizations included Shaoxing Medical Newspaper Office, China National Medical and Health Association, and Medical Department of Taixing Vocational School. The individuals included Xia Shaoting (夏绍庭), Cao Jiada, Tang Yimin (汤逸民), Li Chengrong (李承荣), Huang Jingqiu (黄劲秋), Liu Zuotong, Zhu Wenxuan, Chen Yaotang, Huang Rongfa (黄镕发), Dai Guan, Wang Juren, and He Kunru.


  Significance of the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine during the Republican Period Top


The publication of the Journal of TCM had positive significance to the development of TCM, which was mainly reflected in the following aspects:

  1. Documenting history and literature of Chinese Medicine. As a periodical, the Journal of TCM during the Republican period recorded many famous doctors' medical cases and academic views, leaving precious data for the study of medical history, especially some columns such as notes and medical cases. These columns were specially launched to publish the understandings and experiences of famous doctors, which had become precious medical data in later generations
  2. Promoting academic exchanges. There were columns such as monographs, theories, herbology, notes, medical cases, proven recipes, views on hygiene, and records on medical knowledge explanation and differentiation. in this journal. They aimed at strengthening the academic exchanges among colleagues of TCM. For example, records on medical knowledge explanation and differentiation put particular emphasis on learning from one another by exchanging views and discussing difficult issues. Notes column focused on the personal experience of famous doctors during the process of practicing medicine
  3. Uniting the colleagues of Chinese medicine. There was a column called literature garden, which was convenient for members to exchange poems and songs, strengthen the cohesion among members, and cultivate their lofty medical sentiment. It could be seen that the Journal of TCM during the Republican period was not only a place for TCM academic exchanges but also a platform for uniting colleagues of TCM and promoting TCM culture.


Funding

None.

Authors' contributions

Jing-Fei Yan undertook the tasks of data collection, collation, writing and revision. Li-Li Wang reviewed and revised the manuscripts.

Ethical approval

The authors have no ethical conflicts to disclose.

Conflicts of interest

None.



 
  References Top

1.
Dong X, Duan YS. Retrospect of Shanghai Society of traditional Chinese medicine during the republican period. Chin Med Cult 2017;12:36-40.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Cheng XR, Ding GR. Leader in the Later Period of Menghe Medicine. Shanghai Chinese Medicine News; 2019-03-22 (012).  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Lou SL. Three Celebrities in the History of Modern Traditional Chinese Medicine: Wang Yiren, Wang Yiren and Wang Yiren. Knowledge of Ancient Medical Literature 2004;(04):16-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Meng QY. Qin Bowei, descendant of Shanghai town god. Chin Med Cult 2009;4:43-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Chen LY, Yang YZ. Qin Bowei's Contribution to Chinese Medicine Periodicals in the Republican Period – Talking about Research Value of Chinese Medicine Periodicals in the Republican Period [A]. China Association of Chinese Medicine. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Academic Annual Conference for Branch of History and Literature of Chinese Medicine, China Association of Chinese Medicine and Xin'an Medicine Forum [C]. China Association of Chinese Medicine: China Association of Chinese Medicine; 2014. p. 4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Anonymity. Notes on the use of book. J Tradit Chin Med 1921;1:2.  Back to cited text no. 6
    


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